Bali History

Bali history has become quite unique and distinctive since it is fully supported by its society 's attitude which pays special heed toward their ancestral archeological remains /items. The belief in ancestors makes their awareness of history so great in Bali. Hindu influences from java grew from the reign of King Airlangga (1019-42) the rock cut memorials of Gunung kawi are a legacy of 11th century links to java.

Based on the information found on an 8th century AD inscription, it could be said that the Ancient Balinese historical period covered the time between the 8th and the 14th century AD when the Majapahit's Gajah Mada expedition invaded and defeated Bali. Gajah Mada's expedition to Bali was done when the Bedahulu kingdom under King Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten and Patih Kebo Iwo governed Bali.

Majapahit appointed Sri Kresna Kepakisan to lead the government in Bali under the consideration of the existence of a blood relation between he and the people of Bali Aga. As Islam spread in Java the Majapahit Court progressively moved to Bali. Making its final exodus with priests, artists and intellectuals, in 1478

Dutch's Colonization Period
When Buleleng fell down into the Dutch's hands, the Dutch government began to intervene in the management of government in Bali. This was done by changing the name of the king as regional head to regent for Buleleng and Jembrana areas and placing P.L. Van Bloemen Waanders as the first controleur in Bali. Ducth invation of the south , which climaxed in a suicidal puputan, the Denpasar nobility burnt their own places, dressed in their finest jewellery and waving the golden krises, marched straight into the Dutch guns. The king of Tabanan, Karangasem, Gianyar and Klungkung soon capitulated too and Bali becomes part of the Dutch East Indies.

After going through several battles, the Japanese army landed on Sanur Beach on 18 and 19 February 1942. The Japanese army entered Denpasar without encountering any resistance whatsoever. Then, from Denpasar Japan controlled Bali entirely. At first, the party that established Japanese power in Bali was the Japanese Army (Rikugun). Later, when the situation was in a stable time, the power of government was handed over to a civilian government. After Japanese defeat, the Dutch tried to regain control of their former colonies. On 20 November 1946, by starting the violence at dawn, the Dutch force began to encircle Marga Village. In the war, many members of the Dutch advanced force were killed. In the serious battle which involved all members of Ngurah Rai force, were determined not to leave the war until the last drop of blood. It was here that Ngurah Rai force held Puputan so that all 96 members of the force were killed, including Rai himself. On the other hand, about 400 members of the Dutch force were killed.

On August 17th, 1945, Indonesia was declared independent by its first President, Soekarno. After four years of fighting and strong criticism from international community, the Dutch government finally gave in, and in 1949, Indonesia was recognized as an independent country.

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